FinTech and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Electronic Payment Systems

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed many aspects of the way that individuals engage with banking and payment tools, including various FinTech services. There are several reasons why the pandemic might have accelerated the adoption of FinTech and other digital platforms in payments by consumers and financial institutions. The pandemic may have led to an increase […]

A Contextual Methodology for Regulating the Credit Information Sharing System

Since its emergence in December 2019, there have been more than 20 million COVID-19 infections worldwide, with at least five million confirmed cases in the United States (Roser et al., 2020). Individuals and business entities suffered severe loss of revenues and disrupted supply chains due to industry shutdowns and restrictions on movement and commerce. Policymakers […]

The OCC Should Withdraw Its Proposed “True Lender” Rule

The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) recently issued a proposed “true lender” rule.[1] The proposed rule would establish a two-part test for determining whether a national bank or federal savings association “makes a loan and is the ‘true lender’ in the context of a partnership between a bank and a third party, […]

Regulating Central Bank Digital Currencies: Towards a Conceptual Framework

At this time, numerous initiatives are attempting to provide citizens with a digital form of central bank money, referred to as Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC). CBDC promises many benefits for citizens, such as providing a risk-free means of payment, preserving monetary sovereignty in light of the growing usage of private cryptocurrencies, and strengthening the […]

Financial Stability, Resolution of Systemic Banking Crises and COVID-19: Toward an Appropriate Role for Public Support and Bailouts

COVID-19 is primarily a health and human crisis which has evolved into an ever expanding economic crisis, but not yet a large scale financial crisis. So far, the financial sector has been central to directing financial resources to support economies and societies while governments battle the pandemic. As the length and depth of the economic […]

Cooperative Compliance or Compliant Cooperation? How cooperative approaches to tax auditing are related to firms’ tax risk management, tax risk, and compliance costs

Cooperative compliance (CC) programs are tax audit regimes that replace conventional, ex-post tax audits, with real-time cooperation between firms and tax authorities. According to the OECD, CC is based on mutual trust, transparency, and cooperation and should provide benefits for both sides. First, tax authorities benefit from increased compliance. Because CC-firms are at low risk […]

SMEs in India: Data Privacy and Security and Learnings from the World

Most countries give special treatment to small and medium scale enterprises (“SMEs”) for regulatory compliance given their special needs and limited resources. Countries also grant special treatment and exemptions for data protection compliance, as it is difficult for SMEs to invest large sums into the technological peripherals required to comply with stringent data protection regulations. […]

How should banking supervisors handle COVID-19 crisis?

Supervisory authorities have generally reacted swiftly to the COVID-19 pandemic, deploying support measures such as debt repayment postponement, stimulus packages, and credit guarantees. In some jurisdictions, supervisory authorities also provided capital, liquidity and operational relief to banks. So far, these measures have helped mitigate some of the short-term financial stability risks. However, in many countries, […]

Model Secrecy and Stress Tests

Following the 2008 financial crisis and the Dodd-Frank Act, bank stress tests have become a cornerstone of bank regulation. An important but unexplored issue is the optimal level of transparency of the supervisory stress tests models that are used to project bank capital when conducing the tests.[1] Until 2018, the Federal Reserve provided only a […]

How Important Is Moral Hazard For Distressed Banks?

The bank safety net inherently introduces moral hazard. For example, deposit insurance effectively serves as a put option whose value increases as risk-taking increases, potentially encouraging a bank to increase its value by taking on more risk. Also, due to banks’ systemic importance, they typically receive state support during periods of crisis and even outside […]